3. In-Text Citation (APA)

When you mention another author’s ideas or quote them in your writing you’ll use an in-text citation to signal to your reader. There are two main ways to create in-text citation: you can use a parenthetical citation or use a signal phrases.

Parenthetical Citation

Here’s an example from an article which uses a parenthetical citation:

As the average number of text messages that are sent and received increases, along with increases in cell phone usage, concern from medical and psychological professionals is also growing (Sansone & Sansone, 2013).

The two parts of the parenthetical citation consist of the author of the original article and the date when the article was published.apa-paranthetical

Signal Phrase

Using signal phrases is slightly more elegant way of incorporating quotes and ideas into your paper, since it reads more smoothly and is better integrated into your writing.

For instance, Teixeira et al. (2013) has shown that newer technologies (bright light therapy) can reduce sleepiness in college students, thereby increasing their sleep quality.

Note that you still need the author’s name and the date the article was published.


As you are thinking about adding signal phrases to your own writing, here’s a list to get you started (will open as a PDF). The PDF covers both APA and MLA; see the second page for APA-specific information.

Receive Credit

To receive credit for the Citation as Conversation Step 1, please complete the D2L materials provided by your course instructor.